Impacts of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep on depression symptoms in Canadian older adults 65 years of age and above: a compositional data analysis of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging

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A new publication entitled, “Impacts of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep on depression symptoms in Canadian older adults 65 years of age and above: a compositional data analysis of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging” was recently published in Journal of Activity, Sedentary and Sleep Behaviors. A full citation and summary are below.

ABSTRACT

Background
Daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity (LIPA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and sleep (collectively known as ‘movement behaviours’) are compositional, co-dependent variables. However, most studies examining effects of these behaviours on depression outcomes in older adults do not account for this. Study objectives were to use compositional data analysis methods to (1) examine the relationship between movement behaviour composition (daily time spent in MVPA, LIPA, SB, sleep) and depression symptoms, (2) estimate the extent to which changing time spent in any given movement behaviour within the movement behaviour composition was associated with changes in depression symptoms.

Methods
5643 older Canadian adults ≥ 65 years of age from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging were studied using a quasi-longitudinal study design. Exposure was baseline daily movement behaviours; time spent in MVPA, LIPA and SB were derived from self-reported Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly responses. Night-time sleep was self-reported separately. Outcome was depression symptoms at follow-up obtained using the ten item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Compositional data analysis was used to investigate associations between movement behaviours and depression symptoms.

Results
Movement behaviour composition was significantly associated with depression symptoms. Time spent in MVPA [exp(B) = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.99)] and sleep [exp(B) = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.97)] relative to the remaining movement behaviours were associated with lower depression symptoms scores. Relative time spent in SB was associated with higher depression symptoms scores [exp(B) = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.15)]. Time displacement estimates revealed that the greatest change in depression symptoms scores occurred when time spent in MVPA was decreased and replaced with LIPA, SB, sleep or combination of these behaviours (+ 0.22 to 0.26 points increase on depression symptoms scores for 30 min/day displacements).

Conclusions
Daily movement behaviour composition was associated with depression symptoms in older Canadians. Replacing time in MVPA with equivalent time from any other behaviour was associated with increased depression symptoms. Preserving time spent in MVPA may play a key role in mitigating and improving mental health in this demographic.

CITATION

Hakimi, S., Martin, L.J., & Rosenberg, M.W. (2024). Impacts of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep on depression symptoms in Canadian older adults 65 years of age and above: a compositional data analysis of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Journal of Activity, Sedentary and Sleep Behaviors, 3(8), https://doi.org/10.1186/s44167-024-00047-7 

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