Measuring Muscle Visco-Elasticity in Horizontal Bed Rest Model for Better Understanding of Sedentary Life Style

| May 17, 2013 | 154 Comments

R. Viir, Institute of Exercise Biology and Physiotherapy, University of Tartu, TartuEstonia

 RehabCenter, RheumatismFoundationHospital, Heinola, Finland


M. Pääsuke, Institute of Exercise Biology and Physiotherapy, University of Tartu, TartuEstonia

K. Rajaleid, Center for Health Equity Studies, StockholmUniversity/ Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

*Note: The source for this paper is the 2008 ISU 12th Annual Symposium – ‘Space Solutions to Earth’s Global Challenges’


The aim of this study was to use the upper trapezius muscle as a representative of the musculoskeletal support system to determine the effect on muscle tension due changing from upright position to a lying position and whether this change could be useful in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. Twenty two female subjects participated in this study. Myometric measurements of the upper trapezius muscle on both sides of the body were recorded in a standing, sitting and supine position. Changing from upright positions to a supine position reduced the upper trapezius muscle support function by up to one fifth as characterized with diminishing of muscle tone and stiffness. The change in tone and stiffness of the trapezius muscle is of significance to the well being of sedentary workers. Introducing regular brief breaks of simple unchallenging movements while being in a supine position should enhance recovery from prolonged sitting.

1. Background

1.1 Model from History

In his treatise De Motu Animalium the father of modern biomechanics Giovanni Alfonso Borelli stated already 300 hundred years ago:  ‘…muscular tensions inevitably have to be involved in holding posture’ (1). Also, father of occupational medicine Bernardino Ramazzini said the following about causation of clerk’s neck & shoulder complaints: “Yet ’tis certain that in each City and Town, vast Numbers of Persons still earn their Bread by writing. The Diseases of Persons incident to this Craft arise from three Causes: First, constant sitting, secondly, the perpetual Motion of the Hand in the same manner and thirdly, the Attention and Application of the Mind” (2). Ramazzini listed several other maladies related to prolonged sitting.

Great minds didn’t have more or less sophisticated devices like EMG (Electromyograph), MRE (Magnetic resonance elastography) or MYOTON (Myometric measuring device, as fully described by Vain et al. [10]) to characterise skeletal muscle in different functions and its properties. Indeed their tools were those like inspection and palpation, and system-biological deep pondering upon their observations integrability.

How did scientists characterise the skeletal muscle ensuring the sitting posture in 1700. Obviously, there was interest for it. One could use the tactile sense of the fingers and establish the change in e.g. upper trapezius (UT) muscle in between these positions by palpation. The change can clearly be established – palpation, sensing with fingers is a good method. Anybody can make this discovery palpating their own UT muscles in these positions – much in line with Borelli and Ramazzini. Still, the result of the palpation study cannot be shared with other investigators – this is the limitation of the sensing method – that are why it cannot be used in modern scientific research.

After 300 years passed, Ariëns and her colleagues in 2001 (3) used questionnaire study to conclude that sitting position is an independent risk factor for developing neck pain for the people that sit 95% of the working time.

1.2 Model from Space Life Studies

Human is quite an extraordinary mammal in a sense that during the whole life, each day we change the direction of the longitudinal axis relative to most significant environmental factor – the gravitational force. From morning till night our longitudinal axis relative Earth’s radius have to be supported against gravitational force. By night, the situation is changed drastically by 90° when we lie horizontally, which eliminates the need for the vertical support function. Humans spend in this position one third of the lifetime. Lying down works as the most natural recovering intervention to start the next day. If we were to imagine viewing the whole human life during a one-hour movie, the most noticeable activity would be change between (standing,) sitting and lying. If anyone would observe this from outer space, it could be considered a major factor for understanding our physiology.

On the Earth, the approach of horizontal bed rest microgravity simulation studies is based on the same changing of the longitudinal axis by 90°; the rhythm of the change is different. Staying in horizontal position for couple of months without the need to counteract with the gravitational force causes disuse of muscles and osteoporosis in bones as well as numerous other changes in the whole organism also in organ systems and the cellular level; but the applications of the bed rest (BR) research reveal the crucial role of gravity to health (4). In principle, studying the effect of microgravity on life deals with support function qualitative and quantitative loading. Zero-G spaceflight provokes inherent supportlessness condition in human body with its consequences.

1.3 Model from Robots

For biomechanics, design of bipedal robots is mutually stimulating. Their applications represent experiments, which may support or falsify ideas about the organization and function of living motion and support systems. Bipedal robot – being also a model of a human – needs support and locomotion system. Robots must have flexible waist, which together with their legs have to be supplied with muscle-like property of elasticity/damping ability. This gives to robots self-stability and humanoid-like economic smooth gait, the same time diminishing the need of “constant neural” control (5, 6, and 7).

Bipedal walking – a priori most physiological motion series for human – is absent in weightlessness of Space. The floor is absent. Efforts are made with promising results to offset Earth based rhythmic ground reactions with the Dynamic Foot Stimulus device to combat musculoskeletal disorders in microgravity (8, 9).

On the Earth, we should think of lifelong unassisted natural walking as the most harmonically orchestrated function of a human body in synchrony with breathing, heart beating and triggering pleasure giving raise of theta rhythms from hippocampal neurones (10).

2. Study population and methods

2.1 Study population

The participants were 22 employed working female patients with widespread pain in their rehabilitation cycle in Rheumatism Foundation Hospital. Each of the participants gave their informed written consent. The study was vetted by the Ethical Committee of the Päijät–Häme Hospital District to ensure that it was conducted under the terms of the Declaration of Helsinki.

2.2 Methods

In step 1, each participant stood in relaxed position, upper extremities pendent on sides. They were asked to focus on a mark 4 meters away in order to fix the tilt of the head and the angle of the neck. Non-toxic marks were highlighted on the skin above the middle of the upper trapezius belly halfway from the acromion to the seventh cervical (C7) process.

In step 2, a four-legged wooden chair with a padded backrest and seat without armrests, and without height adjustability was used. Each participant sat in a comfortable relaxed upright position, hands in lap. Again, they were asked to focus on a mark 4 meters away descended on the eyes’ level of participants.

In step 3, the participant lay comfortably supine on a padded examination table.

In all steps the myometric measuring device (figure 1), as fully described by Vain et al. (11) Viir et al. (12) and Gavronski et al. (13), was applied to the marks, and 20 consecutive measurements (at an interval of 1–2 seconds between each) were done twice in two series. Participant was allowed to fidget between two measurement series. Then we compared the results obtained in upright positions with those obtained in the supine position. The differences, significant at the 95% level, are reported on the basis of a Student’s t-test.

2.3 Myometry method

Briefly, the Myoton device registers mechanical oscillations of the tissue provoked by the device itself—the testing-end component of the apparatus works also as a sensor for tissue response. An acceleration transducer, situated on the testing-end, allows the muscle deformation evoked by mechanical impact (0.4 N) to be recorded. Because the neural activation of the skeletal muscle may occur after 25 ms and the properties of the muscle may change (13), the duration of the impact is set at 15 ms to avoid neural reactions and nonelastic deformations of the tissue. In response to the given impact, the tissue (in our case, muscle tissue), together with the testing end, performs natural damping oscillations, governed by the viscoelastic properties of the biological tissue.

Whereas electromyography registers the parameters of electrical activity of the skeletal muscle, the parameters measured by the Myoton device reflect the conditions (i.e., the workability restoration time of muscles during work and after it), and the character of mechanical tension transmission from the sarcomere to the bone levers (15).


Figure 1. The Myoton device and the myometric method (illustration designed by Ivo-Ott Hirvesoo). The principle of myometry lies in giving the muscle under investigation a dosed local mechanical impulse shortly followed by quick release, and recording the mechanical response of the muscle. [Figure reprinted with the permission of Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology [12] and the World Scientific Pub­lishing Co Pte, Ltd, Singapore]

2.4 Muscle tone and established parameters

The term “muscle tone” is used to describe the mechanical firmness of skeletal muscle that exists when the muscles are in a steady-state condition, with no voluntary contraction, and can be characterized by certain mechanical properties of the muscle (e.g., stiffness and elasticity).

Three parameters were calculated – muscle frequency, stiffness, and elasticity. The frequency of the damping oscillation characterizes the state of the tissue under mechanical stress. The higher value (Hz) means the tenser the muscle. Muscle tension increases through both contraction and stretching. By definition, the oscillation frequency of the nonactive muscle is muscle tone.

Stiffness reflects the resistance of the tissue to the force that changes its shape. The higher the value (N/m), the more force is needed to modify the shape of tissue. During contraction or loading, the stiffness of skeletal muscle increases.

Elasticity is the ability of tissue to recover its shape after contraction, and it is characterized by the (unit-less parameter) logarithmic decrement of the oscillation. It describes how much mechanical energy is dissipated in this damping. The smaller values mean more elastic tissue. The higher the value, the more energy dissipated and the less elastic the tissue. Opposite of elasticity is plasticity – a plastic body holds the shape it is given.

3. Results

The individual measurement results were combined for each position, and the similarity to normal distribution appeared. The results of the Student’s t-tests follow. The Tukey – Kramer plot was used because it can combine a display of all the data together with a statistical summary and the concise graphs are easily interpreted.


Figure 2. Tukey-Kramer plots: a) Stiffness (stiff) [N/m] and b) tone (freq) [(Hz] in standing 236.07 N/m and 14.76 Hz, sitting 225.7 N/m and 14.26 Hz, lying 125.8 N/m and 9.57 Hz respectively. Stiffness and tone in standing and lying P < 0.0001, stiffness in lying P = 0.04 and tone in lying P = 0.03.

No significant difference is in all parameters between both sides, no significant difference appeared in any parameters between the pre-post fidgeting measurement series, no significant difference is between parameters of stiffness and tone between standing and sitting positions. Significant difference in stiffness and tone in upper trapezius muscle is between upright and lying supine positions. Positioning doesn’t influence the values of UT elasticity (left side 1.09, right 1.05, P=0.09).

4. Discussion

Waging war on the modern chronic diseases provoked by physical inactivity, i.e. sedentary life style requires recognition of targets. The real enemy is Sitting Immobility.  It is our contention that two terms ‘Sedentary Life Style’ and ‘Sitting Immobility’ are essentially near synonyms. The word “sedentary” is derived from the Latin word “sedentarius,” which means “one that sits,” explained by Booth et al. (16) who have defined that individuals who cannot walk briskly at least 30 min each day are sitting too much of the day.

In a physical sense, common life as we know it, is not a chain of constant sport-like efforts, it is rather carrying our own mass and other weights that cannot be considered large. Thus tensed network of musculoskeletal system related to stiffness and elasticity from muscle tissue’s micro and macro levels has to be adapted to life-span mechanical stress. This process could be seen as the mechanical aging of muscular system.

Alarming news: sedentary lifestyle makes us genetically old before our time: key pieces of DNA telomeres shorten more quickly in people spending sedentary life style – this could signify faster cellular ageing (17). A clear motive that is understandable to everyone would be needed to take optimal care of musculoskeletal system.

Optimally up to 40% of human body mass is skeletal muscle tissue. Being continuously informed about the condition of this locomotion engine (i.e. about quality of viscoelastic property of this) is a challenge that needs to be met. Nobody wants to shorten their lifespan, obviously also not with prolonged sitting, if the effect of this is known.

Common sitting immobility with voluntary noncontracted muscles can hardly be characterised by EMG as the neural activation is seen to be low, or virtually absent, but recording visco-elastic properties is quite easily possible, by myometric test (18).

We exhibit that sitting position requires up to 1/5 more tension in UT muscle as compared to the horizontal position. We recommend utilising this phenomenon for regular recovery of muscles’ visco-elastic properties of the people that sit for prolonged periods. In clinical practice we have also obtained results (besides the ones presented within this paper) indicating reduced duration of the morning stiffness and diminished diffuse swelling in limbs of patients with diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis, when they exercised the horizontal movements in their beds 10 times a day. They even organised a so-called “Baby-like Exercising Patients Association” (19).

This positive practical experience has encouraged us to clarify the underlying causation mechanism. For this we have assessed different subject groups. The results of the present study are similar to the results of the study with the same setup in which 15 young female computer workers participated (18).

The solution we propose to sedentary workers, borrowed from Bed Rest study is not lying the whole”siesta time”. Our proposal is: let’s combine diminishing of support function loading and rhythmical walking simulation in horizontal. For shoulder girdle specific simple unchallenging motions are proposed. Two minutes intermittently both actions per hour for muscular system recovering from continuous position controlling.

We see good prospects for such rehabilitation and prevention programme for addressing the complaints stemming from sitting work; potentially the problems that are also costly for the employers in a global sense could find a simple remedy.

It is our contention that every footstep makes life healthier and longer. Still, the current consensus that a 30 minute brisk walk couple times in a week is sufficient for staying healthy only specifies the minimum level, not optimal. Further, we are looking for results of rehab with walking two or more hours per day. A human with the specific ability for bipedal walking should be ready/capable of this.


  1. Borelli, G.A. De Motu Animalium. Batavis, Lugduni, 1685
  2. Franco, G. Ramazzini and workers’ health. Lancet. Vol. 354, pp. 858–61, 1999
  3. Ariëns, G.A., Bongers, P. M., Douwes, M., Miedema, M. C., Hoogen­doorn, W. E., van Der Wal, G., et al. Are neck flexion, neck rota­tion, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain?: results of a prospective cohort study. Occup Environ Med. Vol. 58, pp. 200–207, 2001
  4. Pavy-le Traon, A., Heer, M., Narici, M.V., Rittweger, J., Vernikos, J. From space to Earth: advances in human physiology from 20 years of bed rest studies (1986-2006) Eur J Appl Physiol. Vol. 101, pp. 143-194, 2007
  5. Blickhan R, Seyfarth A, Geyer H, Grimmer S, Wagner H, Günther M. Intelligence by mechanics.  Philos Transact A Math Phys Eng Sci. Vol. 365, pp. 199-220, 2007
  6. Fischer, M.S., Witte, H. Legs evolved only at the end! Philos Transact A Math Phys Eng Sci. Vol. 365, pp. 185-198, 2007
  7. Iida, F, Rummel, J., Seyfarth, A. Bipedal walking and running with spring-like biarticular muscles. J Biomech. [Epub ahead of print] 2007
  8. Layne, C.S., Mulavara, A.P., Pruett, C.J., McDonald, P.V., Kozlovskaya, I.B., Bloomberg, J.J. The use of in-flight foot pressure as a countermeasure to neuromuscular degradation. Acta Astronaut. Vol. 42, pp. 231-46, 1998
  9. Miller, T.F., Saenko, I.V., Popov, D.V., Vinogradova, O.L., Kozlovskaya, I.B. Effect of mechanical stimulation of the support zones of soles on the muscle stiffness in 7-day dry immersion. J Gravit Physiol. Vol. 11, pp. 135-6, 2004
  10. Buzsaki, G. Theta rhythm of navigation: link between path integration and landmark navigation, episodic and semantic memory. Hippocampus. Vol. 15, pp. 827-840, 2005
  11. Vain, A., Kauppila, R., Humal, L-H., Vuori, E. Grading rigor mortis with myotonometry—a new possibility to estimate time of death. Forensic Sci Int. Vol. 56, pp. 147–50, 1992
  12. Viir, R., Laiho, K., Kramarenko, J., Mikkelsson, M. Repeatability of trapezius muscle tone assessment by a  myometric method. J Mech Med Biol. Vol. 6, pp. 215-228, 2006
  13. Gavronski, G., Veraksitš, A., Vasar, E., Maaroos, J. Evaluation of viscoelastic parameters of the skeletal muscles in junior triath­letes. Physiol Meas.  Vol. 28, pp. 1-13, 2007
  14. Davidoff, R.A. Skeletal muscle tone and the misunderstood stretch reflex. Neurology. Vol. 42, pp. 951–63, 1992
  15. Vain, A. Role of skeletal muscle tone and elasticity in the work­ability restoration of male cross-country skiers. Acta Acad Olympiquae Estoniae.  Vol. 10, pp. 95-108, 2002
  16. Booth, F.W., Gordon, S.E., Carlson, C.J., Hamilton, M.T. Waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology. J Appl Physiol. Vol. 88, pp. 774-787, 2000
  17. Kimura, M., Hjelmborg, J.V., Gardner, J.P., Bathum, L., Brimacombe, M., Lu.X. et al. Telomere Length and Mortality: A Study of Leukocytes in Elderly Danish Twins. Am J Epidemiol. [Epub ahead of print] 2008
  18. Viir, R., Virkus, A., Laiho, K., Rajaleid, K., Selart, A., Mikkelsson, M. Trapezius muscle tone and visco-elastic properties in sitting and supine states. SJWEH Suppl. Vol. 3, (in press) 2007
  19. Viir, R., Eskola, A. Kellahda selällesi, Liikunnallista itsehoitoa, [Lie Back, Help Yourself with Horizontal Exercising, in Finnish], Werner Söderström, Porvoo-Helsinki-Juva 1991

Category: Research

Comments (154)

Trackback URL | Comments RSS Feed

Sites That Link to this Post

  1. seo outsourcing company india | July 3, 2014
  2. best Naturals raspberry ketone | August 21, 2014
  3. | January 22, 2015
  4. Slimera Garcinia | February 11, 2015
  5. official site | September 15, 2015
  6. moisturizer for dry skin home remedies | September 26, 2015
  7. how to talk dirty to a guy | September 26, 2015
  8. | October 24, 2015
  9. | November 26, 2015
  1. I am sure this article has touched all the internet users, its really really
    nice piece of writing on building up new blog.

    my webpage Jewellery Shops

  2. Hello there, I found your blog by way of Google even as looking for a
    comparable subject, your site got here up, it seems good.
    I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

    Hi there, just turned into alert to your weblog thru Google,
    and found that it’s really informative. I’m going to watch out for brussels.

    I will appreciate in the event you continue this in future.
    Numerous other folks will probably be benefited out of your writing.

  3. I’m curious to find out what blog platform you happen to be working with? I’m experiencing some minor security problems with my latest blog and I’d like to find something more secure. Do you have any recommendations?

  4. fantastic put up, very informative. I’m wondering why the other experts of this sector don’t understand this.
    You should proceed your writing. I’m sure, you have a huge readers’ base already!

  5. Thanks for one’s marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you’re a great author.
    I will always bookmark your blog and definitely will come back very soon.
    I want to encourage one to continue your great job, have a
    nice evening!

  6. Hey would you mind stating which blog platform you’re working with? I’m planning to start
    my own blog soon but I’m having a difficult time selecting between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your design and style seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something
    unique. P.S My apologies for being off-topic but I had to ask!

  7. I like the valuable info you provide in your articles.
    I will bookmark your blog and check again here
    frequently. I am quite sure I’ll learn lots of new stuff right here! Best of luck for the next!

  8. This website was… how do you say it? Relevant!! Finally I have
    found something that helped me. Thanks!

  9. Hi to every single one, it’s actually a pleasant for me to pay a visit this web page, it includes valuable Information.

  10. When I originally commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time a comment
    is added I get three emails with the same comment. Is there any way you can remove people from that service?
    Many thanks!

  11. android apps says:

    Highly descriptive article, I enjoyed that a lot. Will there
    be a part 2?

  12. great publish, very informative. I’m wondering why the other experts of this sector do not notice this. You must proceed your writing. I am confident, you have a great readers’ base already!

  13. says:

    The regulators also allege that the balance sheet of Royal Bank
    had a deficit of $140 billion, which the bankers dispute.
    On top of all this we have the mountains of debt that have supported our economies in the west for so long.
    Until recently the umbilical cord and the placenta were considered
    medical waste and simply disposed of after birth.

    my page: pnc online Banking account logonpncbank –

  14. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this matter to be actually something which I think I would never understand.
    It seems too complicated and extremely broad for me. I am looking forward for your next post, I’ll try to get
    the hang of it!

    My site; the fat loss factor system

  15. stretch mark says:

    Yes! Finally someone writes about before and after stretch marks.

  16. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your blogs really nice, keep it up!

    I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come
    back later. Many thanks

  17. Fitness Info says:

    Hi there it’s me, I am also visiting this website regularly,
    this web site is really nice and the people are truly sharing good thoughts.

  18. Karri says:

    Thank you for sharing your info. I truly appreciate your
    efforts and I am waiting for your further post
    thanks once again.

  19. I am sure this piece of writing has touched all the internet
    people, its really really nice post on building up new webpage.

  20. I am curious to find out what blog system you’re
    working with? I’m experiencing some minor security issues with my latest site and I’d like to find something more secure.
    Do you have any solutions?

  21. American Dental Association, Texas Dental Association, an Excellence in Teaching Award from thee California Dental
    washington family dentistry 07882 Association. Learn, Choose, Live!
    Again, as you can see yourself going washington family dentistry 07882 to ffor the next presentation.

  22. Thаnk you, I’ve reсently beеn looking for information about this topic
    for а while and yours is the greatest I have came upon ѕo far.
    But, what about the bottom line? Arе you positive in regards to the source?

    my blog: EndoRev Pre Workout

  23. repressive says:

    I am really delighted to read this webpage posts which includes lots of useful facts,
    thanks for providing these kinds of data.

    my webpage: repressive

  24. says:

    I had suffered with acne all through health o meter my adult years, trying everythijg
    from benzoyl peroxide to long-term antibiotics,
    to the community. Vani, so great to be here get to eat it fresh.
    Gahr Störe indicated that everyone involved needs to be
    extensively insured as they will not do anything.
    That surprise is also in the audience.

  25. Hi there are using WordPress for your site platform?
    I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get
    started and set up my own. Do you require any html coding knowledge to make your own blog?
    Any help would be really appreciated!

    my web page :: fitted wardrobes london

  26. After exploring a few of the articles on your site,
    I really like your way of blogging. I saved as a favorite it to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back
    in the near future. Please check out my website too and let me know your opinion.

    Feel free to visit my web page; raspberry ketone

  27. reclaim ppi says:

    It’s actually a nice and useful piece of information. I am
    satisfied that you shared this helpful info with us.
    Please stay us up to date like this. Thanks for

    Feel free to surf to my web-site; reclaim ppi

  28. I am really impressed with your writing abilities and also with the layout
    in your blog. Is this a paid topic or did you customize it yourself?

    Either way stay up the nice high quality writing, it’s rare to peer
    a nice weblog like this one these days..

    Visit my site; ultrasound technician

  29. I do believe all the concepts you have presented to your post.
    They’re really convincing and will certainly work. Nonetheless,
    the posts are too quick for starters. May you please prolong them a bit from subsequent time?
    Thanks for the post.

    Feel free to visit my page; liquid vitamin mineral

  30. I’ve been browsing on-line greater than 3 hours today, but I never found any fascinating article like yours.
    It’s beautiful worth enough for me. Personally, if all website owners and
    bloggers made just right content as you did, the web
    will likely be much more helpful than ever before.

    Feel free to visit my web site; how to improve bench press

  31. Lloyd says:

    It’s perfect time to make some plans for the future
    and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or suggestions.
    Perhaps you can write next articles referring to this article.

    I want to read more things about it!

    Have a look at my blog post – (Lloyd)

  32. Jerilyn says:

    First of all I would like to say terrific blog! I had
    a quick question which I’d like to ask if you don’t mind.

    I was curious to know how you center yourself and clear your mind before writing.
    I’ve had a hard time clearing my mind in getting my ideas out.
    I do take pleasure in writing however it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes tend to be lost just trying to figure out how to begin.

    Any suggestions or tips? Kudos!

    Have a look at my weblog; webpage (Jerilyn)

  33. Rene says:

    Incredible! This blog looks exactly like my old one!
    It’s on a totally different subject but it has pretty much the same page layout and design.
    Superb choice of colors!

    Feel free to surf to my webpage :: homepage; Rene,

  34. Hi there, i feel i observed an individual been to my own blog page so i came to go back the particular wish? . Now i am wanting to to find problems to enhance this site! Maybe it has the alright to make full use of most of your opinions!

  35. Excellent beat ! I would like to apprentice whilst you amend
    your website, how could i subscribe for a weblog website?

    The account helped me a appropriate deal.
    I were a little bit familiar of this your broadcast provided shiny transparent idea

    My blog :: wireless broadband internet harvard ne

  36. If only all householders could understand the serious dangers posed by carbon
    monoxide poisoning. Each year more than twenty people are
    needlessly killed by this odourless, colourless gas leaking from faulty gas boilers
    together with hundreds more who suffer serious ill health because of

  37. Ahmed says:

    Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets
    I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
    I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you
    would have some experience with something like this.
    Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

    Visit my homepage … world news june 2013 (Ahmed)

  38. seo company says:

    I every time used to study piece of writing in news papers but now as
    I am a user of net so from now I am using net for
    articles, thanks to web.

  39. hello there and thank you for your information – I’ve certainly
    picked up anything new from right here. I did however
    expertise a few technical points using this website, since I experienced to
    reload the website many times previous to I could get
    it to load correctly. I had been wondering if your web hosting is
    OK? Not that I’m complaining, but slow loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in
    google and could damage your high-quality score if advertising and marketing
    with Adwords. Anyway I’m adding this RSS to my e-mail and can look
    out for a lot more of your respective interesting content.
    Make sure you update this again very soon.

  40. luke bryan says:

    There will also be touring extensively this year and
    she will take the stage, as it requires to be in the same format as some other artists.
    The house orchestra, the Orquesta de Valencia, will also
    make an appearance that month, on the heels of his #1 Gold®-certified
    smash Do I. Tickets are available on Sold Out Ticket Market against nominal price.

    Here is my site … luke bryan

  41. Attractive component of content. I just stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to
    assert that I get actually enjoyed account your blog
    posts. Anyway I’ll be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement
    you get right of entry to constantly rapidly.

    Here is my blog swing trading

  42. Aw, this was an extremely nice post. Spending some time and actual effort to produce a superb article… but what can I
    say… I put things off a whole lot and never seem to get anything done.

    Here is my web page: wireless broadband internet karthaus pa

  43. I wanted to thank you for this excellent read!! I absolutely loved every bit of it.
    I’ve got you bookmarked to check out new things you post…

    Visit my weblog … world news xinhua

  44. Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads
    up. The words in your post seem to be running
    off the screen in Internet explorer. I’m not sure if this is a format issue or
    something to do with web browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you know.
    The style and design look great though! Hope you get the problem fixed soon.

    Feel free to visit my webpage – garcinia cambogia extract pure reviews

  45. I’d like to find out more? I’d care to find out
    some additional information.

  46. There’s definately a lot to learn about this issue. I really like all the points you have made.

    My website: technology venture capital firms

  47. Lots of fraud/review/report websites were intended to inform and educate the customer.

    For an incredible informative review please check out this blog – reputation management seo

  48. In-fact, the World Wide Web comes with an important impact on us.
    Strain the mixture out of the reservoir and put only water in.
    Which solution you choose is decided by which way you want to switch it.

    For a wonderful solution please check-out this page … flash banner creator blogspot

  49. For the best review please visit this amazing site – reputation Management Affordable

  50. Put simply, do not employ too many or too few keywords
    or key phrases. Lots of people are running to earn money by way
    of on-line organization and e-business sites. Let’s start with clearing a common misconception.

    For the best answer please jump over to this website; search engine optimization for dummies 3rd edition

  51. The sales job, alongside tax calculation,
    may be handled by these applications quite easily.

    For an awesome solution please check-out this site –

  52. That’s what makes the distinction between good and exceptional reputation management

    For the best review please check out this website

  53. Kathaleen says:

    The sales undertaking, in addition to tax calculation, might be handled by these software packages without difficulty.

    For a better informative review please jump over to this amazing
    site: (Kathaleen)

  54. Build-Up your reputation management campaign on the basis of the
    scientific information. This site was started as Bears I’m
    Jealous That was absolutely focused on hairy men.

    For the best review please check-out this post :: reputation management yellowbot

  55. Annmarie says:

    Not the most effective SEO technique in the world will probably sell bad products,
    badly presented. Consider this advice under
    consideration and stick with perfecting your site actually.

    For an awesome answer please check out this website (Annmarie)

  56. Pretty great post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have truly loved
    surfing around your blog posts. After all I will
    be subscribing to your rss feed and I am
    hoping you write again very soon!

    Here is my web site; weather channel

  57. Aside from these, there are various other models and manufacturers
    available in the marketplace. Random-Access Memory
    identifies data storage that can be used in virtually any order.

    For an awesome answer please jump over to this amazing site pc help station

  58. He did survive smelling such as a flower.

    For the best review please checkout this web-site …
    reputation management for individuals

  59. It is crucial that the corrective measures that have been framed are
    correctly implemented.

    For an incredible review please click the link to this blog Reputation management new york times

  60. Hi my friend! I want to say that this article is amazing, great written and come with almost all
    significant infos. I would like to look extra posts like this .

    acheter des louboutins pas cher

  61. site says:

    Also visit my site site

  62. I think the admin of this web page is genuinely working hard for
    his website, since here every material is quality based information.

    My weblog – dish network topeka ks

  63. amigo energy says:

    Hi colleagues, nice paragraph and pleasant urging commented at
    this place, I am genuinely enjoying by these.

    Here is my web page … amigo energy

  64. Shawna says:

    Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Many thanks, However I am having
    difficulties with your RSS. I don’t understand the reason why I cannot subscribe to it.
    Is there anyone else having identical RSS problems?
    Anybody who knows the answer will you kindly respond?

    Check out my blog post: web site (Shawna)

  65. It’s going to be ending of mine day, however before finish I am reading this fantastic
    post to increase my know-how.

    Feel free to visit my site … home surveillanc,,

  66. Carrol says:

    Thanks for sharing your thoughts on kora tv. Regards

    Here is my site: web page (Carrol)

  67. Henry says:

    What’s up to all, how is the whole thing, I think every one is getting
    more from this website, and your views are fastidious in favor of new people.

    Feel free to visit my site (Henry)

  68. Mathias says:

    Hi there! This post couldn’t be written any better!
    Reading through this post reminds me of my good old room mate!
    He always kept chatting about this. I will forward this page to him.
    Fairly certain he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing!

  69. Aw, this was a really nice post. Spending ome time and
    actual efrort to produce a realy good article…
    but what can I say… I procrastinate a whole lot and
    don’t seem to get nearly anygthing done.

  70. Sarah says:

    Thank you a lot for sharing this with all folks you really understand
    what you’re speaking about! Bookmarked. Kindly additionally
    visit my website =). We could have a hyperlink change agreement among us

  71. Caridad says:

    Hi there! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before
    but after reading through some of the post I realized it’s new to me.
    Anyhow, I’m definitely delighted I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back often!

    my website :: (Caridad)

  72. Olen says:

    Hmm it appears like your blog ate my first comment (it was
    extremely long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I had written and
    say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I as well am an aspiring blog
    writer but I’m still new to everything. Do you have any recommendations for rookie
    blog writers? I’d certainly appreciate it.

    Also visit my page; (Olen)

  73. Johne455 says:

    I’m not sure exactly why but this weblog is loading very slow for me. Is anyone else having this problem or is it a problem on my end? I’ll check back later and see if the problem still exists. agekaefadebb

  74. Moreover, giving your body natural nutrients in the form
    of living green and living sustainably by using our natural resources wisely to
    restore and maintain a healthy bodyweight. Stay away from prepackaged foods, junk food, you weight loss nutrition will see results.
    Total calorie reduction at the end of the tunnel. The more muscle
    you have, the more fuel our body needs to be done
    before running, which is proof of weight loss nutrition the hard work he has been doing.
    During addition to burning fat, which can be life changing for people needing
    to lose weight.

  75. Hmm is anyone else encountering problems with the pictures
    on this blog loading? I’m trying to find out if its a problem on my end or if it’s
    the blog. Any feed-back would be greatly appreciated.

    Feel free to surf to my homepage … Luma Repair And Luma Hydrate

  76. I am not sure where you’re getting your info, but good topic.

    I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more.
    Thanks for fantastic info I was looking for this info for my mission.

  77. Hiya! Quick question that’s entirely ooff topic.
    Do you know how to make yokur site mobile friendly?

    My site looks weirdd when viewing from my iphone4.
    I’m trying to find a template or plugin that might be able to fix tgis issue.
    If you have any recommendations, please share. Thanks!

  78. Taking it orally is pain free as compared to using weight
    loss injections and also the risk of unforeseen complications and even premature death.
    It releases some compounds that accelerate weight loss when it is used to make cinnamon
    rolls and apple pie is a kind of cinnamon is known as” the cheap stuff.

  79. Gonzalo says:

    I’m really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout
    on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?
    Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see a great blog like this
    one today.

    Feel free to surf to my page (Gonzalo)

  80. Andres says:

    Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was
    a amusement account it. Look advanced to far added agreeable from you!
    However, how can we communicate?

  81. Alexandra says:

    Hi there to every , for the reason that I am in fact eager of reading this weblog’s post to be updated on a regular basis.
    It includes pleasant data.

    my weblog … web site (Alexandra)

  82. Dawna says:

    This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled
    blogger. I have joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your excellent post.
    Also, I have shared your website in my social networks!

    My blog post … webpage (Dawna)

  83. new homes says:

    You actually make it seem so easy together with your presentation but I to find this matter to be really something which I
    feel I’d never understand. It seems too complicated and very huge for me.

    I’m having a look forward in your next put up, I’ll attempt to
    get the hang of it!

    Also visit my web site – new homes

  84. agent well says:

    I always used to read post in news papers but now as I
    am a user of internet thus from now I am using net
    for posts, thanks to web.

    Look into my website … agent well

  85. Click here says:

    I got what you mean , appreciate it for posting .Woh
    I am happy to find this website through google. “You must pray that the way be long, full of adventures and experiences.” by Constantine Peter Cavafy.

  86. Inspiring quest there. What occurred after? Take care!

    My blog post; internet providers centreville ms

  87. I needed to thank you for this wonderful read!! I certainly loved every little bit
    of it. I’ve got you book marked to look at new stuff you post…

    My web-site satellite internet provider yancey tx

  88. Teri says:

    Have you ever wondered, why sites advertise in this manner?

    With the help of bidding accountant process. This is how a lot you’ll make
    in two months, of doing nothing. With this, you will then receive your bonuses.
    Even search engines accountant are typically surrounding long
    tail keyword phrases. Many PPC services companies suggest their
    clients to start off with $1, 000/mo and take it from there.
    An action might be a conversion, filling out a contact

  89. Thanks for sharing your info. I really appreciate your efforts
    and I am waiting for your further write ups thank you once again.

  90. Everything is very open with a very clear clarification of
    the challenges. It was definitely informative.
    Your site is very useful. Many thanks for sharing!

  91. Frieda says:

    Shangri La Casino Tbilisi is the most popular are the video
    poker games. Accommodations at the hotel include free wireless Internet, on-demand movies
    and complimentary use of the same is casino highly
    suggestive of the kind it is. Investors are
    furthermore happy that the deal is contingent upon obtaining a gaming license from the concerned local authorities.

  92. rea says:

    Heya terrific website! Does running a blog like this take a lot of work?
    I’ve virtually no understanding of programming but Iwas hoping to start my own blog in
    the near future. Anyway, if you have any recommendations
    or techniques for new blog owners please share. I know this
    is offf topic nevertheless I just wanted to ask.
    Manny thanks!

  93. Fastidious replies in return of this question with solid arguments and telling everything regarding that.

  94. I would like to tthank you for the efforts you’ve
    put in penning this site. I really hope to see the same high-grade blog posts from you in the future as well.
    In fact, your creative writing abilities has inspired
    me to get my vewry own website now 😉

    Stop by my web-site: ammo for sale

  95. womens Hornets jersey. Sale only 18$ And 100% Stitched free shipping.

  96. Buy cheap Warriors authentic jerseys

  97. There are many regulations, however, a charter fighting chairs for sale fishing boat.
    When bass are hitting minnows around docks and lily pads, or in the evening.
    Ice fishing is a more challenging task. Trust me, I’ve had quite a few nice sized perch.

    Last but not the least, one of the easiest and most popular – trout stream, but much of the time.

  98. Dirk says:

    I’m really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog like this one these days.

  99. Rebbeca says:

    It’s going to be finish of mine day, but before end I am reading this wonderful post to improve my knowledge.

  100. Rebekah says:

    Ahaa, its good dialogue concerning this article at this place at this weblog, I have read all that, so at this time me also commenting at this place.

  101. lukebrayn says:

    Agree on you! Nice point-of view

    My web page – lukebrayn

  102. Wonderful blog! I found it while browsing on Yahoo News.
    Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News?
    I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem to get there!
    Thank you

    Here is my webpage; Protect Our Communities

  103. For latest news you have to go to see the web and on the web I found this web page as a best website for newest updates.

    my website: sunscreen labels

  104. HCG Diet says:

    HCG is the most effective, permanent weight loss program to both men and women, in particular, those who have given up hope in their journey to permanently lose weight.

    Some doctors will tell you not to exercise at all while taking it.

    People also say that after consumption of these drops, they even witnessed considerable difference in the fatty
    region before and after consumption.

  105. It’s very effortless to find out any topic on net as compared to textbooks, as I
    found this piece of writing at this site.

    Feel free to surf to my web-site :: front lawn landscaping

  106. What’s Going down i’m new to this, I stumbled upon this I’ve
    found It absolutely helpful and it has helped me out loads.
    I am hoping to contribute & help different customers like its aided me.
    Good job.

  107. Hello to all, the contents present at this web page are really amazing for people knowledge,
    well, keep up the nice work fellows.

    For the best detailed explanation please click the link to this post journal of dietary supplements

  108. l carnitine says:

    Excellent, what a webpage it is! This web site provides
    useful information to us, keep it up.

    For an awesome solution please check out this site
    l carnitine

  109. I do agree with all of the ideas you’ve presented in your post.
    They’re really convincing and can definitely work. Nonetheless, the posts
    are very brief for starters. May you please prolong
    them a bit from next time? Thanks for the post.

    my homepage what is the best muscle building supplement

  110. pinterest says:

    We all know by now, that when you make a habit of connecting
    with potential customers little and often, on topics that they care about, you
    increase the likelihood of them doing business with you.
    The following are four prime reasons why you should be using Pinterest,
    including examples of practical applications:.
    how can businesses effectively use this new social media platform.

  111. Amazing issues here. I’m very happy to peer your post.
    Thanks a lot and I’m having a look forward to contact you.
    Will you please drop me a e-mail?

    For an awesome detailed explanation please click the link to this page –
    anti aging skin care reviews

  112. hi!,I like your writing so so much! percentage we be in contact
    more about your article on AOL? I require a specialist
    on this house to resolve my problem. Maybe that’s you! Taking a look ahead to look you.

    For a wonderful answer please take a look at this
    site … Utrimcleanseblog.Com

  113. Highly descriptive blog, I loved that a lot. Will there be a part 2?

    Also visit my site Jovan G. Duttry

  114. Hey there, I am a fresh new web developer just starting and I require a portfolio.
    How would you like a web-site design for no extra charge?

  115. Thanks for finally writing about > Measuring Muscle Visco-Elasticity in Horizontal
    Bed Rest Model for Better Understanding of Sedentary Life Style : SBRN < Loved it!

  116. Greetings! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could locate a captcha plugin for my
    comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having problems finding one?
    Thanks a lot!

  117. Aw, this was an incredibly good post. Spending some time and actual effort to generate a superb article… but what can I say… I put things off a whole
    lot and never manage to get nearly anything done.

  118. Εverything is very open ith a really clear edplanation of tɦe issues.
    It was really informative. Your site is
    vегy usefսl. Thanks for sharing!

    my website remodeling construction management software (

  119. Dyan says:

    Awesome content you post here! You can earn some extra $$$ from your page,
    don’t miss this opportunity, for more details just type in google – omgerido monetize website

  120. Enrique says:

    It’s a tremendously costly experience to it, with a rubbery finish and a little bit of weight to it.
    Nothing about any of it vape pen feels cheap so far.

  121. I know this site gives quality based content and additional
    stuff, is there any other site which offers these kinds of stuff in quality?

  122. I’ve read some just right stuff here. Definitely price bookmarking for revisiting.
    I surprise how a lot effort you place to create this sort
    of fantastic informative website.

  123. I am regular visitor, how are you everybody? This paragraph posted at this web site is actually

  124. tea plant says:

    The brother of the groom wedding speech also gives him
    the chance to make fun of the grooms’ behavior during the dating period.
    In an algebraic expression, letters always stand for numbers.

    s central character with convincing depth and detail, the production can present
    an interesting and exciting person around which you can build a game and story.

  125. milon says:

    The change in tone and stiffness of the trapezius muscle is of significance to the well being of sedentary workers. Introducing regular brief breaks of simple unchallenging movements while being in a supine position should enhance recovery from prolonged sitting.

  126. vigfx trial says:

    To start out off I’d like to present you a bit glimpse into my own story
    of penis male enlargement.

  127. No matter if some one searches for his essential thing, thus he/she
    needs to be available that in detail, so that thing is maintained over here.

  128. Aesome post.

    For an awesome review please check-out this web-site :: opuderm (

  129. prodroxatone says:

    An impressive share! I have just forwarded this onto a coworker who had been conducting a little homework on this.
    Andd he actually bought me breakfast due to the fact that I found it for him…
    lol. So let me reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanks for spending some time to talk about this
    issue here on your web site.

    For a better informaive review please haave a look aat this web-site: prodroxatone

  130. Excellent blog! Do you have any recommendations for aspiring writers?
    I’m planning to start my own website soon but I’m a little lost on everything.
    Would you advise starting with a free platform like WordPress
    or go for a paid option? There are so many
    choices out there that I’m completel confused .. Any suggestions?
    Thanks a lot!

    My website Slimgenix Pro Supplement

  131. EddieLewin says:

    It was hard to find this article in google,
    but i’m glad i found your awsome page. You deserve
    for much more traffic. Your niche is not so difficult to rank in google, there is
    one effective method to rank, search in google for: Rotia knows how
    to rank

  132. imgur says:

    This is also possible if they offer SEO as part of their
    service. The web design on a web hosting providers
    website is a quick and easy indication of the quality of the provider.

    There are thousands of web-hosting service providers and
    all of them claim to be the best.

  133. johnriders says:

    Guys, where can i downloads movies for free any service or site?
    not torrent it doesnt work on my PC

  134. Jackie White says:

    9. to prevent breakage in your makeup bag, put some cotton on it by the cover.

    10. sponges to apply makeup in half. So always you have a spare one.

    BEAUTY 7 big mistakes should not be committed!

    Each evolution of the form and style of interesting techniques. It is personal so that they are prone to make mistakes, and worse than that in many cases, no one tells us anything, and so will last a lifetime. So here I

    Bellaplex Wrinkle Reducer |

  135. Why people still make use of to read news papers when in this technological world all is available on web?

  136. spit hire says:

    I couldn’t refrain from commenting. Well written!

  137. I can tell you in this review why I am so pleased with the Fat Diminisher system, which turned out to be a genuine weight loss program and is definitely not a scam.

Leave a Reply